Sadaqatul-Fitr (or Fitrah) is wajib (compulsory) upon all Muslims – men, women and children who on the day of Eid-ul-Fitr are owners of the Nisab of Zakaah. Fitrah becomes wajib when the day of Fitr dawns with the commencement of Fajr. Therefore, if someone died before entry of Fajr on the day of Eid, Fitrah will not be paid out of his (the deceased’s) estate, since this Fitrah is not wajib on him.
If a child is born before the rising of Fajr, Fitrah will be paid on his behalf. If the child is born
after the entry of Fajr (on the day of Eid), Fitrah is not wajib on his behalf. The father has to pay the Fitrah on behalf of his under age children, i.e. those who have not attained the age of puberty. It is not obligatory upon the husband to pay Fitrah on behalf of his wife. If she is the owner of Nisaab, she shall have to pay her own Fitrah.
The Fitrah should preferably be paid before the Eid salaah. It is not permissible to delay the payment of Fitrah later than the day of Eid. However, if it was not paid on the day of Eid or before, the obligation remains and the Fitrah will have to be paid. It is permissible to pay the fitrah in advance at any time during the month of Ramadhan. The Fitrah
could be paid even before Ramadhan. Sadaqatul-Fitr is wajib upon all those who fasted as well as those who did not fast for some reason or other.
THE REASONS FOR GIVING SADAQATUL-FITR ARE :-
1. To give Sadaqatul-Fitr in lieu of the acceptance of one’s fasting.
2. To thank Allah I for bestowing on us the strength to fast during the month of Ramadhan.
3. To purify one’s fast and obtain the complete blessings of fasting.
4. To celebrate the completion of fasting.
5. To demonstrate greatness of the day of Eid.
6. To assist the poor in joining the atmosphere of Eid.