The Prophet (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would not begin fasting Ramadan until there was a verified sighting of the crescent indicating the month or with the testimony of two trustworthy Muslim witnesses or just one witness. But when there was no sighting or testimony or the night of the thirtieth day of Sha’baan was cloudy and the crescent could not be sighted, he would complete thirty days for Sha’baan and then fast after that.
He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would forbid that a Muslim fast a day or two days prior to the start of Ramadan out of precaution, unless those days coincided with days he normally fasted.
He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wsalaam) would not break his fast until directly after the disk of the sun had disappeared. And he would order his Companions to hasten in breaking their fast. And he would break his fast before praying (the Maghrib prayer). He would break his fast with fresh dates. If he didn’t find them, then with old dates, and if he didn’t find them, then with sips of water. When breaking his fast, he would say: “The thirst has gone, the veins have moistened and the reward is certain, if Allaah wills.” [Dhahaba Adh-Dhama’u wabtallatil-‘urooqu wa thabatal-ajr in sha Allaah]
When He (SalAllau Alyahi Wsalaam) would travel in Ramadan, he would either fast or beak his fast and his Companions would choose between the two. So they would hold that whoever had energy and fasted then that was good and whoever was weak and broke his fast, then that was good.
It was not from his (SalAllahu Alayahi Wsalaam) practice to estimate the point of distance in a journey for which a fasting person could break his fast. When his Companions would set out on a journey, they would break their fast without even having crossed outside of their homes. And they informed that this was His Sunnah.
And it was from his (SalAllahu Alayahi Wsalaam) practice, that Fajr would come on Him while He was still in the state of Janaabah (sexual impurity), due to his wives, so He would bathe (make ghusl) after Fajr and then fast.
And He would kiss some of his wives while He was fasting in Ramadan, but He was the best amongst mankind at preventing his desires (from overtaking Him).
He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would use the Siwaak while fasting. And He would wash his mouth and nose while fasting, but would not let the water go deep in his nose or mouth.
He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would pour water on His head during fasting, due to thirst or the heat.
He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would eat dates for His pre-dawn meal (suhoor) and He would incite His Companions to take the Suhoor even if it was only a gulp of water. And He would delay the Suhoor until shortly before Fajr. The time between His Suhoor and the Fajr prayer was the extent it takes a man to recite fifty verses from the Book of Allaah.
He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would supplicate a lot, especially in the Night of Al-Qadr, saying: “O Allaah, You are indeed All-Pardoning, and You love to pardon (sins), so forgive Me.” [Allaahumma Innaka ‘Afoowun, tuhibbul-‘afwa fa-‘Aafu ‘Annee]
A Description of the Prophet’s ‘Itikaaf during Ramadan:
He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wsalaam) would perform ‘Itikaaf during the last ten days of Ramadan and He would only do so while fasting and in the three Masjids only (i.e. Masjid Al-Haraam in Makkah, Masjid An-Nabawee in Madeenah and Masjid Al-Aqsaa in Jerusalem)
When He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would want to make ‘Itikaaf, He would pray the Fajr prayer (in the masjid) and then begin His ‘Itikaaf.
He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would set up a small tent in the back of the masjid in which He would perform the ‘Itikaaf and He would place His bed and mattress there.
He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would permit some of His wives to visit Him while in the state of ‘Itikaaf, and He would depart from them in the door of the masjid. He would not be intimate with them at this time, whether by kissing them or other than that.
And He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) permitted a woman to make ‘Itikaaf with her husband or by herself.
While in the state of ‘Itikaaf, He would not go out from the masjid unless He had some humanly need.
The Prophet’s guidance in giving out the Zakaat-ul-Fitr:
Allaah’s Messenger (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) obligated the Muslim and those he provides for, young and old, male and female, free and slave to give a saa’ (around 2 kilogram) of dates or a saa’ of barley or a saa’ of dry cheese, or a saa’ of raisins or half a saa’ of wheat, or a saa’ of the food of the people’s land.
He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would give it out in food and not cash.
It was from His (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) practice to give the Zakaat-ul-Fitr a day or two prior to the ‘Eed prayer.
It was from His (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) practice to specifically give the Zakaat-ul-Fitr to the needy people (masaakeen). And He (SalAllahu Aalyahi Wasalaam) would not divide it separately for the eight categories of people mentioned in Surah At-Tawbah (60). He (SalAllahu Alayahi Wasalaam) would appoint one of His Companions to collect and guard the Zakaat-ul-Fitr.