WISDOM, KNOWLEDGE AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES:
The angels reply “They answered, ‘Thus your Lord spoken; He is indeed the All-Wise and the All-Knower.” affirms the attributes of Speech for Allah.
It also affirms Allah’s attributes of Wisdom (al-Hakim) and Knowledge (al-‘Alim), which are the source of creation and decree. All Allah’s creation, as well as His decree and law, result from His Knowledge and Wisdom. Furthermore, Knowledge and Wisdom include Allah’s other Perfect Attributes.
Allah’s Perfect Knowledge implies His perfect Life (al-Hayy) and all that derives from it such as Support for all the creation (al-Qayyum), Power (al-Matin) , Hearing (as-Sami) and Seeing (al-Basir).
His Perfect Wisdom implies perfect Will, Justice, Mercy, Benevolence, Generosity, and Kindness. It implies perfect judgement in doing things in the best possible way. It also implies justly decreeing and delivering rewards or punishment. All these meanings then derive from Allah’s name: the All-Wise, al-Hakim. The Qur’an relates all these matters to this attribute of Wisdom. It strongly rebukes those who claim that Allah created all the creation futilely and uselessly (without wisdom).
Because of this, it is most plausible to conclude that reason leads to the basic belief in the Resurrection, and that the Revelation comes with further confirmation and details of this belief.
The Qur’anic approach concerning Resurrection supports this conclusion. All praises be to Allah who gives two types of rational proof concerning it:
The first type deals with the likelihood of its occurance. Proofs for this derive from Allah’s Power.
The Second type deals with the certitude of its occurance. Proofs for this derive from Allah’s Wisdom.
One who examines these proofs will realise that they are quite sufficient and, praise be to Allah, they leave no need for any other proofs. They are sound and satisfactory, they address the issue in a most direct way, and they include refutation and clarification of doubts and misconceptions that occur to many people.
Both Allah’s creation and His commands result from His Knowledge and Wisdom. This story specifically mentions these two attributes because people tend to be astonished when they hear of a baby being born for a couple who would not normally give birth.
DESTROYING THE PEOPLE OF LUT:
Next, Allah describes sending these angels to destroy Lut’s people by stoning them with marked stones, “[Ibrahim then] said: ‘And what else, [heavenly] messengers, is your errand?’ They answered: ‘We have been sent to a people deep in sin, to launch clay stones on them, marked out in your Lord’s sight for [the punishment of] those who have wasted their own selves.” This shows that Allah supports His messengers and destroys their enemies. It points to the Resurrection, and it shows that rewards and punishment clearly take place in the world as well. This is one of the greatest proofs of the truthfulness of the messengers in delivering their Lord’s Message.
Islam and Imaan
In the next words, “We evacuated those of the believers who were there: But We did not find there any except one Muslim household”, Allah makes a distinction between Islam (or Muslims) and Imaan (or believers). There is a subtle reason for this which is called for because of the context.
the evacuation and deliverance from severe punishment was meant only for those believers who followed the messengers openly as well as secretly. This applied to only one household (that of Lut), which could be described as a Muslim household.
Lut’s wife was a member of this household, and was apparently Muslim. But she was not to be among the rescued beleivers. Allah told about her betrayal of her husband, which was not in his honour, but in that she accepted her people’s ways to such an extent that she went secretly to inform them about his guests. Thus she was apparently one of the Muslim household, but not one of the true believers who deserved to be rescued.
This answers a famous question: ‘Why is the more general term Islam, excluded from the more specific term, Imaan? Does not the rule of exclusion require an opposite practice?” Based on the above discussion, it becomes clear that the ‘Muslims‘ are not excluded from the ‘beleivers’ but from those who ‘were not found’.
A MESSAGE FOR THOSE WHO FEAR:
The last part, “and so We left therein a message for those who fear the grievous suffering [which awaits evildoers]”, points to Allah’s signs and marvels which he decreed in this world, and which He preserves as reminders of Himself and of the truthfulness of His messengers. These are beneficial only for those who believe in the Hereafter and fear Allah’s punishment. This is similar to what Allah said elsewhere:
“Herein lies a message indeed for all who fear the punishment in the life to come.”
(Surah Hud 11:103)
“He will heed who fears [Allah].”
(Surah Al-‘Ala 87:10)
As for those who do not believe in the Hereafter, when they see such signs they just say, “These are people who, like many others, were hit my misfortune. This is the norm of time: it gives happiness to some people and misfortune to others!” But those who believe in the hereafter and are afraid of it are the ones who benefit from these signs and reminders.
When a person understands the meanings and implications of the Qur’an in the correct way, they will perceive the marvels and wisdom that amaze the mind: and they will realise that it is indeed revealed by the All-Wise, the All Merciful. This study was meant to point out and to give examples as to how people vary in understanding the Qur’an and in extracting its treasures and marvels. Indeed, bounties are in Allah’s hand and he gives of them to whom He wills.