Popular Muslim prayer apps, namely Al-Moazin Lite and Qibla Compass, among dozens of other apps were removed from the Google Play store after discreet data harvesting malware was found on them. The malware was detected in a number of popular Muslim prayer, and consumer apps. It also included a highway-speed-trap detection app, a QR-code scanning app, and numerous additional Muslim prayer apps that have been downloaded over 10 million times, on Android devices. Serge Egelman and Joel Reardon, two researchers, uncovered the code's behaviour while conducting auditing work for Android app vulnerabilities. According to the two researchers, Measurement Systems S. de R.L., the Panamanian company that made the malware, is linked to a US-based Virginia defence contractor. The defence contractor undertakes cyber intelligence, network defence, and intelligence-intercept work for the US national-security organisations. The app was secretly sending users' sensitive data, including their phone's unique IMEI identification number to the parent company. Large amounts of personal data including email addresses, phone numbers, and user's precise GPS location history were also being stored and shared. Passwords and files inside WhatsApp downloads folders were also being accessed. The domain name of the company was found to have been registered by a US-based company, called Vostrom, in 2013. However, Measurement Systems denied having had any relations with it.